Innovation is key to improving productivity, sustainability and resilience in food and agriculture
The food and agriculture sector is expected to provide healthy, safe and nutritious food for a growing population, while at the same time supplying feed for more and more farm animals, and furnishing fibre and fuel and other bio-based products for a range of industrial uses. The sector must also use natural resources more sustainabily to preserve available land, water, and biodiversity resources, and respond to climate change. To meet these challenges and respond to opportunities, the sector will need to embrace innovative approaches to improve productivity in a sutainable manner.
Trends in agricultural productivity and sustainability performance
The most comprehensive productivity indicator is Total Factor Productivity (TFP), which reflects the efficiency with which producers combine inputs to make outputs. In recent decades, productivity improvements have driven considerable growth in agricultural production, but there are large differences in productivity growth between countries, and by farm type, size and region as illustrated in recent OECD farm-level analyses. Productivity gaps remain significant among farms, and improving the productivity of farms lagging behind remains a challenge even for the strong performing countries.
Agri-environmental issues also vary in scope and severity in countries studied by the OECD. Like physical capital, natural (environmental) capital requires investment and maintenance to retain its productive capacity. For agriculture, this encompasses managing natural resources to ensure their long-term viability and reducing the negative environmental impacts of agriculture production, such as pollutants and waste, which can damage the natural assets. Sustainable agriculture production systems also need to account for the projected impacts of climate change and the associated adaptation responses, as well as the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
To help measure the sustainability of agriculture, the OECD agri-environmental indicators monitor trends in use of land, water and energy, and agriculture’s impact on the environment, via the intensity of use of polluting inputs (pesticides) and the sector’s emission of pollutants (greenhouse gases, ammonia).
Adoption of innovation is the main driver of productivity growth, and can improve sustainability
At the farm level, many innovations are “process innovations” as they relate to improving production techniques; for example, adopting improving seeds or irrigation systems. Downstream industries also innovate new and improved products, such as functional attributes for food (health) or in the chemical or pharmaceutical industry (bioeconomy). All along the the supply chain, marketing and organisational innovations are increasingly important.
The future of food and agriculture depends on the capacity of agricultural innovation systems to provide farmers with innovations that address an increasingly diverse and complex range of needs, including improved farm productivity and environmental performance, as well as better responses to climate change.
Agricultural policy should instead focus on measures to improve the sector’s long-term productivity and sustainability, such as investment in general services that strengthen human and infrastructure capacity, and farmers’ connection to input and output markets. There must also be a business case from the farm to the fork for producers to innovate and to improve productivity and environmental performance. Well-functioning markets and a sound regulatory and policy environment are key to harnessing these market opportunities.
In particular, governments should strengthen agricultural innovation systems to make them more collaborative and responsive to needs, which would increase the impact of public expenditure. Improving the relevance of innovations would also increase adoption in the sector and acceptance by society. Governance is the key to such improvements, which would include forming clear strategic objectives in consultation with stakeholders and comprehensive mechanisms and procedures for evaluation. Finally, attention needs to be paid to adoption, including skills improvements.
Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in Japan
In Japan, agriculture has been treated differently from other parts of the national economy. However, policy needs to evolve with new agricultural structures and the global trend towards more integrated value chains, enabling innovation and entrepreneurship in agriculture, and imposing a greater environmental responsibility on producers.
G20 Framework for Analysing Policies to Improve Agricultural Productivity
In 2011, G20 Leaders asked the OECD and the FAO to spearhead an effort to identify policy responses to price volatility in food and agriculture markets. First among their recommendations published in a 2012 report was the need for governments to take action to strengthen the long-term productivity, sustainability and resilience of the food and agriculture system worldwide.
In parallel, the OECD was developing a framework to analyse the role of governments in fostering innovation in the agricultural and agri-food sectors to assess the extent to which the overall policy environment is conducive to achieving better productivity growth in a sustained and sustainable way. The framework was then extended to cover three drivers: innovation, structural change, and natural resources and climate change. The whole range of macro-economic, institutional, and sectoral policies in the economy will influence these drivers and, in turn, outcomes in terms of productivity and sustainability.
The framework was then extended to cover three drivers: innovation, structural change, and natural resources and climate change. The whole range of macro-economic, institutional, and sectoral policies in the economy will influence these drivers and, in turn, outcomes in terms of productivity and sustainability.
To date, the OECD has applied the framework to a number of OECD and G20 members through in-depth productivity-sustainability reviews. The framework is an evolving tool that will continue to be refined and improved with experience in reviewing different countries at different stages of development and with different natural endowments.
To date, the OECD has applied the framework to a number of OECD and G20 member through in-depth agricultural innovation reviews. The framework is an evolving tool that will continue to be refined and improved with experience in reviewing different countries at different stages of development and with different natural endowments. Access the country studies directly on the OECD iLibrary: